tl;dr, for your first bass it’s more important that you buy one that plays well, that you like, and that has a tone you like, than strictly whether it is active or passive.
Longer answer: It depends on what you want. If you want modern sounds or more versatility on the bass itself, choose an active bass. If you love the classic sound and/or plan to buy at least one preamp pedal anyway, passive is fine.
The preamp on the bass is very useful for shaping tone. The reason is it is at the very start of the signal chain, so the tone changes you make there are also sent through and modified by all the effects. This is not true of the preamp on the amp, which is useful for shaping the final tone. It may be true of preamps in your pedals, depending on where they are in your chain.
But none of this really matters for your first bass or for home practicing, it only really matters for recording yourself or trying to capture specific tones.
Plus you will probably trade up from (or buy friends for) your first bass at some point anyway
For maximum versatility, there’s active/passive basses with a switch to choose which mode you want. An excellent choice down the line IMO: