I agree that this chart is - on its own - more confusing than helpful, @howard. However, it DOES include all notes of the C major scale (AND all notes of the related diatonic scales), as you also pointed out, so you could argue that once you memorize the entire pattern here, you know all the “good” notes and the once to avoid for Cmaj, Dmin, Emin, Fmaj, and so on (all diatonic scales for C maj) Now, if you are interested in F# major, you “just” shift everything two frets to the right and voilà
In reality, you’d need to use this overview chart together with the basic scale patterns. They are, of course, “hidden” in there, but if you don’t already know them, you won’t find them. D’oh!
Still, one important point is that the patterns you are referring to are typically only the most compact patterns for, e.g., C major. It is, however, advisable, to learn - eventually - all the patterns that give you the C major scale on your fretboard, as this is also the only way to be able to play that (or any) scale over more than one octave. Then, you need to know how to continue going up the fretboard, but the movement is now no longer horizontal, but much more vertical.
Initially, I thought there would be shortcuts to get this knowledge, but I guess there is no way around to memorizing these patterns over the entire fretboard and get them into your muscle memory as well. That, I am afraid, takes a lot of (zen-like) patience